Human health timeline: 2010s
Stem cells for spinal, heart and vision repair
The most widely used modern intravenous anaesthetic is thiopentone sodium. Effective doses of this barbiturate were established by researchers at the University of Wisconsin12, working with rats, rabbits and dogs.
Oral or inhaled insulin for type 1 diabetes
Tetanus vaccine allows your body to create antibodies against the tetanus toxin (tetanospasmin). This protects you from the illness if you are exposed to the Clostridium tetani bacterium in the future.
Angiogenesis inhibitors for cancer, blindness
In 1888 Pierre Roux and Alexandre Yersin1 showed that the liquid in which the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae had been grown caused diphtheria, by injecting it into guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, cats and horses.
Gene therapy for muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease
Blood clotting (coagulation) disturbs blood flow, and is essential to stop bleeding after a cut. But clotting in the wrong place can lead to deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, heart attacks and strokes. Anticoagulants are used to prevent or treat these.
Immunotherapy targetting beta-amyloid can clear plaque in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. Clinical studies have shown promise, but with some severe side effects arising from inflammation.
Three types of vaccine are envisaged: anti-infection vaccines, anti-disease vaccines, and transmission-blocking vaccines.