Severe procedures may cause severe pain, suffering or distress or long-lasting moderate pain, suffering or distress. They can cause severe impairment in well-being or condition. Examples include:
- any test where death is the end-point or fatalities are expected
- testing a device that could cause pain/death if it were to fail
- inescapable electric shocks
Inducing Parkinson's disease in a marmoset (species of monkey)
"The marmoset is injected in the stomach with a substance called MPTP, which is known to cause symptoms like those of Parkinson's disease. After a series of injections, the marmoset becomes increasingly less able to move and experiences 'tremors' that are typical of Parkinson's. In the end he is unable to balance on a perch, loses body weight and has to be hand fed, given extra fluids and kept warm. He then slowly begins to recover and over several weeks regains movement until he is almost physically fit, although still with a slight tremor. The marmoset is then used to test the effectiveness of a potential drug for Parkinson's, which is given by injection into the stomach either once or several times."
Example taken from Openness in Animal Research Dialogue.
This video shows Geoff Butcher, a patient with Parkinson’s Disease, interviewing a scientist who uses Marmosets as an animal model to investigate Parkinson's disease. The scientist does this by using MPTP to destroy the substantia nigra in the Marmosets. This is the part of the brain that is associated with the fine control of movement. Damage to the substantia nigra that causes the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.